Understanding COP 9: The Importance of Tax Investigation Resolution

COP 9, short for “Code of Practice 9,” is a crucial element of the UK’s tax investigation process. It is a formal procedure used by HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) to investigate individuals or businesses suspected of tax fraud or serious tax evasion. In this article, we will explore the significance of COP 9, how it works, and the implications it has for those facing tax-related investigations.

1. What is COP 9?

COP 9 is a part of HMRC’s efforts to tackle serious tax evasion and fraud. It is an investigatory procedure designed to encourage individuals or businesses to come forward and disclose any irregularities in their tax affairs voluntarily. It offers a structured framework for resolving these issues while minimizing the potential for criminal prosecution.

2. The Significance of COP 9:

COP 9 is significant for several reasons:

  • Deterrence: It acts as a deterrent against tax fraud and evasion, sending a clear message that such activities are taken seriously.
  • Resolution: It provides individuals and businesses with a way to rectify their tax affairs, potentially avoiding criminal prosecution and minimizing penalties.
  • Fairness: COP 9 encourages a fair and proportionate approach to resolving tax disputes, allowing individuals or businesses to cooperate with HMRC and address any irregularities.

3. How COP 9 Works:

The COP 9 procedure involves the following steps:

  • Opening of the Investigation: HMRC opens an investigation into an individual’s or business’s tax affairs, suspecting serious tax fraud or evasion.
  • Offer of a Contract: HMRC issues a COP 9 Contract, which outlines the specific conditions of the investigation.
  • Disclosure of Irregularities: The individual or business must make a full and complete disclosure of the tax irregularities they are aware of, typically over a specified period.
  • Cooperation: The individual or business is expected to cooperate fully with HMRC throughout the process.
  • Agreement on the Settlement: HMRC and the individual or business work together to determine the amount of unpaid tax, interest, and penalties owed.
  • No Criminal Prosecution: As long as the individual or business complies with the COP 9 Contract, they will not face criminal prosecution for the irregularities disclosed.
  • Full Payment: The individual or business must make full payment of the agreed-upon amount.
  • Confidentiality: Information provided by the individual or business under COP 9 is kept confidential and cannot be used against them in criminal proceedings.

4. Benefits of COP 9:

COP 9 offers several benefits:

  • Avoiding Criminal Prosecution: The primary benefit is the avoidance of criminal prosecution, which can lead to severe penalties, including imprisonment.
  • Reduced Penalties: By cooperating under COP 9, individuals and businesses may benefit from reduced penalties compared to a full-scale criminal investigation.
  • Closure: COP 9 provides a structured path to resolution, allowing individuals and businesses to put irregularities behind them.

5. Risks and Obligations:

While COP 9 offers benefits, there are also associated risks and obligations:

  • Full Disclosure: Individuals or businesses must make a complete and accurate disclosure of irregularities, as any omissions could lead to criminal investigation.
  • Full Payment: The agreed-upon amount must be paid in full, which can be a significant financial obligation.
  • Cooperation: Full cooperation with HMRC is required throughout the process.

6. Seek Professional Advice:

If you find yourself subject to a COP 9 investigation, it is essential to seek professional advice from tax experts or legal professionals who specialize in this area. They can provide guidance, help you navigate the process, and ensure you make accurate and complete disclosures.


COP 9 plays a vital role in the UK’s efforts to combat serious tax fraud and evasion. It provides a structured approach for individuals and businesses to voluntarily disclose and resolve tax irregularities, potentially avoiding criminal prosecution. While it offers benefits, it also comes with significant obligations, including full disclosure and payment. Seeking professional advice is crucial for individuals or businesses facing a COP 9 investigation to ensure a fair and satisfactory resolution while complying with all obligations.

Check out Richardson Lissack for more information.

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